Kabul's climate is greatly influenced by its location in a valley at 1800m 5900ft. Summers June-Sept are hot and dry, averaging from the high 20s to the mid-30s 80-95F with next to no precipitation. Autumn Oct & Nov is temperate and sees very little precipitation. Winters Dec-Mar are cold and the time of year which sees the most precipitation mostly snow, but also ice, freezing rain, and sleet on warmer days. January is the coldest month, averaging 4/-7 39/19F. Spring late Mar-early June is temperate with lots of rain tapering off by early May.
Keep in mind that the city lies in a valley and some villages on the edge of the city are a few hundred meters higher and thus cooler in the summer and colder and snowier in the winters. Many roads leading to/from the city are regularly blocked by high snowfall in winter although the city's importance to the US presence means they will be cleared relatively quickly, the most notorious is the highway north towards Kunduz.