Foreign students have different educational needs. China's universities offer many different types of courses and teaching methods to cater to these needs as well as to the different educational levels of the students that come from abroad. Peking University åäº¬å¤§å¦ and Tsinghua University æ¸ åå¤§å¦, both based in Beijing, are China's most prestigious universities, and are regularly ranked among the top universities in the world.
Language trainees Universities accept students who have achieved the minimum of a high school education for courses in the Chinese language. These courses usually last 1 or 2 years. Students are given certificates after they complete their course. Students who do not speak Chinese and want to study further in China are usually required to complete a language training course.
Private language schools also offer more flexible language training courses to get prepared to study, live or work in China. Mandarin House ç¾åæ±è¯, . was established in 2004 and is a well known Chinese school offering intensive group courses or tailor-made private tutoring lessons. Students can start every month and choose for how long they want to learn. edit
UndergraduatesUndergraduate degrees usually require 4-5 years of study. International students have classes together with native Chinese students. In accordance with each student's past education, some classes of a degree course can be cancelled and some have to be added. Students receive a Bachelor's degree after passing the necessary exams and completing a thesis.
PostgraduatesMaster's degrees are granted after 2-3 years of study. Oral examinations are also taken as well as written exams and a postgraduate thesis.
Doctoral students Usually 4-5 years of study are needed to obtain a PhD.
Research scholarsResearch is usually conducted independently by the student under the supervision of an assigned tutor. Any surveys, experiments, interviews, or visits that a research scholar has to make need to be arranged beforehand and authorised.
Short-term training coursesShort-term courses are now offered in many areas such as Chinese literature, calligraphy, economics, architecture, Chinese law, traditional Chinese medicine, art, and sports. Courses are offered in the holidays as well as during term time.
Foreign students are encouraged to continue their studies and obtain Master's or doctoral degrees in China's universities, and those who have graduated in China are welcome to return for further education. Some universities offer courses taught in foreign languages, but most courses are in Chinese, and you need to demonstrate a sufficient proficiency in Chinese before you can enroll. You do this by passing the HSK test æ±è¯æ°´å¹³èè¯ hÃ nyÇ shuÇpÃng kÇoshÃ¬, the official way to certify your skills on a Basic, Intermediate or Advanced level. The test involves reading, writing and listening, but no speaking. See the HSK homepage (http://www.hsk.org.cn/english/) for dates and locations.
Teaching a language, most commonly English, is a very popular source of employment for foreigners. There are English-teaching jobs all over China. The market for teachers of other languages is more limited. However most universities require all English majors to study another foreign language as well, and there are specialised universities for foreign languages in major cities such as Beijing (http://www.bfsu.edu.cn), Guangzhou (http://english.gwnews.net/), Xi'an (http://www.xisu.edu.cn/wa...), Dalian and Shanghai (http://www.shisu.edu.cn/S...) which teach most major world languages. Guangzhou is establishing itself a reputation as a hub for so-called rare languages.
Requirements and qualifications range from just having a pulse and speaking a bit of English up to needing an MA and experience. Typically the good jobs want at least one, preferably two or three, of:
a 4-year degree
a teaching certificate for primary school or high school from your own country
a recognised TEFL certificate, e.g. Cambridge CELTA (http://www.cambridgeesol....)
If you want to go and do not already have good qualifications, get a TEFL Teaching English as a Foreign Language certificate. It really helps.
There are a fairly strong preferences for native English speakers and for citizens of major English-speaking countries. Job ads routinely include a list of acceptable passports; UK, US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand are on every list, Ireland and South Africa on most. Some schools will not even read the rest of your resume if you do not have one of those passports. Various prejudices may also come into play; overseas Chinese even with perfect English, Filipinos, Indians, Malaysians, American Blacks, and especially Africans all report some difficulties finding jobs, or getting lower offers. Members of all those groups are happily employed in other schools, and many are well-paid, but getting a job is easier for people who fit a stereotype — Caucasians especially Americans or British. Some schools want blue-eyed blondes, because they hope that will help their marketing. Accent can also be an issue; Chinese people generally hope to acquire American accents, so a really thick Scots or Aussie accent will bother some employers, for example.
Pay and conditions vary greatly depending on location, experience and qualifications. Free accommodation, provided by the institution, is common. Generally this means an apartment of your own, though some tightfisted schools want teachers to share. Most jobs pay for all or part of an annual trip home. Teachers nearly always make enough to live well in China, though some have a problem in summer because many university or high school jobs pay for only the 10 months of the academic year. It is often possible to teach private lessons on the side - in fact your students or their parents may ask about this incessantly. Foreign teachers generally earn two or three times their Chinese colleagues' salaries but the differences are gradually narrowing. A public college or university will often pay less than a private school, but will also require fewer teaching hours.
Make certain you understand your employer's policies on outside work as some are quite restrictive. The standard government-provided contract (http://www.china-tesol.co...), which most schools use perhaps amended a bit, prohibits it enitirely unless you get permission from the employer.
If you plan to work as a teacher in China, research very carefully. You might get your dream job or a nightmare. Take great care in your selection of employer; broken contracts and general unscrupulousness and dishonesty are common. As a rule, government schools give the best all-around deals and if there is any dispute, you can appeal to the Foreign Experts Office of the provincial education ministry. If you can document your case and it is a valid one, they will take action. And it tends to be fast. Before filing an appeal, try to resolve the issue through direct discussion. If that fails, ask someone to function as a go-between -- a Chinese if possible, but otherwise another expatriate will do. Only appeal as a last resort: as in other aspects of life everywhere, the threat of action is often more effective than action itself.
See also Teaching English.
In order to promote its culture and language, the Chinese government offers scholarships to foreigners who want to study in China. Partial scholarships will cover the tuition fees of the study of your choice. Full scholarships cover pretty much everything, including books, rent, some medical coverage, and a monthly allowance for food and expenses. Although studying pins you down to a specific city and limits the time you can spend travelling, a scholarship is a great way to help you cut through some red tape, get a Residence Permit, and, if you're lucky, live in China practically for free.
To inquire about scholarships, you can directly contact the embassy in your area, or ask around at universities and language schools that have China-related courses. Scholarships are pre-distributed by quota to every country, so if too many people want one, you will be competing against your fellow citizens, not against the entire world. The procedure varies from country to country, but normally requires the following paperwork :
authorized copies of your highest preferably university degree, including the exam scores;
two letters of recommendation
proof of a full health check-up blood-test, ECG, X-Ray, ...
plenty of passport-sized photos
All of this is shipped by the embassy to Beijing, which then decides who is accepted, where, and under what modalities. Application usually rounds up by the end of march, and the answer may not come until as late as august, with classes starting in September.
If all goes well, this will net you a letter of acceptance by the university of your choice, plus a visa that lets you stay in China for about two months. Once in China, you will have to do the medical tests all over again, and upgrade the visa to a residence permit. This however is where being part of a university comes in handy, as they should be able to handle all of the paperwork, going so far as to bring a medical team on campus to check you up — much preferable over you running from police station to hospital to consulate, especially if you don't speak Chinese!
When all is said and done, you will have a residence permit that lets you stay one year in China, lets you leave and enter the country as you want, and a fair ability to travel during weekends, holidays, and the occasional class-skipping stint.
Golf is rapidly becoming a popular hobby for wealthy Chinese. With more land available for development, the Pearl River Delta has seen a boom in golf courses and country clubs catering to both Hong Kong clients and local elites. For more information on courses and rules, please see the Golf in China article.
martial arts and taichi
As with traditional cultural arts, those with the time and inclination may be interested in studying China's famed martial arts. Some, such as tai chi å¤ªææ³ tÃ ijÃquÃ¡n can be studied by simply visiting any city park in the early morning and following along. You will likely find many eager teachers. Other martial arts require more in-depth study. Famous martial arts programs include those at the Shaolin Temple on Mount Song and Wu Wei Temple near Dali.
If you are planning to spend a longer time in China then you may want to consider learning some of the traditional arts. Traveling to China is after all a unique chance to learn the basics, or refine already acquired skills, directly from master practitioners in the arts' home country. Many cities have academies that accept beginners, and not knowing Chinese is usually not a problem as you can learn by example and imitation. Calligraphy ä¹¦æ³ shÅ«fÇ, a term that covers both writing characters and painting scrolls that is, classical landscapes and the like remains a popular national hobby. Many calligraphers practice by writing with water on sidewalks in city parks. Other traditional arts which offer classes include learning to play traditional Chinese instruments inquire in shops that sell these as many offer classes, cooking Chinese cuisine, or even singing Beijing Opera äº¬å§ jÄ«ngjÃ¹. Fees are usually extremely modest, and materials you need will not exactly break the bank. The only requirement is being in the same place for a long enough time, and showing sufficient respect; it is better not to join these classes as a tourist attraction.
Massage is available all over China, often both high quality and reasonably priced. Traditionally, massage is a trade for the blind in Asia. Expert work costs Â¥15 to Â¥30 an hour.
Almost any hairdresser will give a hair wash and head massage for Â¥10. This often includes cleaning out ear wax and some massage on neck and arms. With a haircut and/or a shave, Â¥15 to Â¥25. In large cities, expect to pay Â¥40 or more for a cut and wash.
Foot massage è¶³ç zÃºliÃ¡o is widely available, often indicated by a picture of a bare footprint on the sign. Prices are from Â¥15 to about Â¥60.
Whole body massage is also widespread, at prices from Â¥15 an hour up. There are two varieties: Ã nmÃ³ ææ© is general massage; tuÄ«nÃ¡ æ¨æ¿ concentrates on the meridians used in acupuncture. The most expert massages are in massage hospitals, or general Chinese medicine hospitals, usually at Â¥50 an hour or a bit more. The best value is at tiny out-of-the-way places some of whose staff are blind ç²äººææ© mÃ¡ngrÃ©n Ã nmÃ³.
These three types of massage are often mixed; many places offer all three.
Some massage places are actually brothels. Prostitution is illegal in China but quite common and often disguised as massage. Most hot spring or sauna establishments offer all the services a businessman might want for relaxation. As for the smaller places, if you see pink lighting or lots of girls in short skirts, probably considerably more than just massage is on offer, and quite often they cannot do a good massage. The same rule applies in many hair salons which double as massage parlors/brothels.
The non-pink-lit places usually give good massage and generally do not offer sex. If the establishment advertises massage by the blind, it is almost certain to be legitimate.
It is possible to take a nap for a few hours in many massage places and even to spend the night in some. Hairdressers generally do not have facilities for this, but you can sleep on the table in a body massage place or much better on the couch used for foot massage. Fees are moderate; this is probably the cheapest way to sleep in China. Note, however, that except in high-end saunas with private rooms, you will share the staff's toilet and there may not be any way to lock up luggage.
Language for massage:
tÃ²ng ç and bÃº tÃ²ng ä¸ç are "pain" and "no pain"
hÇo å¥½ and bÃ¹ hÇo ä¸å¥½ are "good" and "not good"; hÄn hÇo å¾å¥½ is "very good" or "great"
yÃ o è¦ is "want", bÃº yÃ o ä¸è¦ "don't want"
yÇng ç is "that tickles"
There are several ways a masseur or masseuse might ask a question. For example "does this hurt" might be asked as tÃ²ng bÃº tÃ²ng? or tÃ²ng ma?. For either, answer tÃ²ng or bÃº tÃ²ng.