Taiwan Traditional Chinese: 台灣 or 臺灣, Simplified Chinese: 台湾 tái wān (http://eng.taiwan.net.tw/...) is an island nation of about 36,000 km² located off the coast of southeastern mainland China, southwest of Okinawa and north of the Philippines. The island is offically known as and governed by the Republic of China 中華民國 Zhōnghuá Mínguó or ROC. Shaped roughly like a sweet potato, the nation is home to more than 23 million people and is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Besides its crowded cities, Taiwan is also known for steep mountains and lush forests. In addition to the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China also governs the tiny Pescadores Penghu, Quemoy Kinmen/Jinmen, and Matsu.