With a Black Sea coast to the east, it is bordered by Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to the southwest, Hungary to the northwest, Moldova to the northeast and Ukraine in both the north and the east. While its southern regions are usually seen as part of Southeastern Europe Balkans, Transylvania, its largest region, is in Central Europe.

The country - which joined the European Union in January 2007 - is currently enjoying better standards since Communist times, with foreign investment on the rise.