Although some semblance of normality has returned to much of the country with the conclusion of the nation's democratic transition and a democratically chosen head of state in August 2005, travellers should be warned that there is still significant insecurity throughout the country and exercise extreme caution. Besides the still-active rebel group, the Forces Nationales de la LibÃ©ration FNL that continues to attack government forces and civilians, threats posed by banditry and armed robbery, as well as petty crimes, remain. Visitors should exercise caution, avoid travelling after dark, and be aware of curfew laws. Many roads close at night, and most embassies put out curfews on their staff. As in any other conflict or post-conflict situation, visitors should consult their embassy to be apprised of the latest local developments, and be sensitive to the changing security environment.
Be careful of kiosk foods and avoid unboiled water. Also ensure you have been vaccinated.
As in many other African countries, HIV infection is widespread. One source (http://www.scienceinafric...) suggests 18.6% in the cities and 7.5% in the countryside as of 2002.
Although most travellers will find that they can get around passingly well with a working knowledge of French and increasingly English, some familiarity with Swahili or the related local language, Kirundi, is helpful, particularly in rural areas. The problem may be that Kirundi is extremely difficult to learn. Kirundi and Kinyarwanda the official language in Rwanda are quite similar.