Taxis are prevalent, easy to spot,as a tourist just stand at the curb and make a small slowing down gesture with palm and arm straight down. To charter a taxi [take a drop] is more expensive than to share one [line taxi]. Prices are negotiable and almost always need to be bargained over. Always settle on a fare BEFORE getting in. Drivers often try to quote 2-3 times higher than the typical price, so don't be shy about bargaining. In Accra, Drop Taxi fares start at 2ghc up to ghc 20 for airport, allow 3ghc to 6 ghc around town.
Also be aware that drivers NEVER know actual addresses, but instead navigate by landmarks, i.e. 1st traffic light after market, or Freddies corner by Circle. Essential to have mobile, call your destination, pass phone to driver so he can be given the right directions.
Line taxis follow specific routes and stop at the same places as trotros. Local people will be pleased to make sure you get the right one. Like trotros, they always run full, sometimes squeezing 4 or 5 into the back seat before taking off, but they are about 10% the cost of private taxis.
If this is your first visit to West Africa, be prepared for very different standards of vehicle condition.
There are rail links between Accra, Takoradi and Kumasi however, as of October 2010, all railways have been suspended except those traveling from Accra to Nsawam four times a day, Monday through Saturday and from Accra to Tema twice a day, Monday through Saturday. These are mostly used as commuter trains for residents. The railway system is being renovated, so the other routes are expected to reopen to passengers when everything is complete.
There are scheduled domestic flights 16 times a day between Accra and Kumasi, 9 times a day between Accra and Sekondi Takoradi, 8 times a day between Accra and Tamale and 2 times a day between Accra and Sunyani. There are also filghts to destinations outside the country.
Current operating airlines are Starbow and African World Airlines. Antrak Air has temporarily suspended its services. CityLink does not exist anymore in Ghana, neither does Fly540.
There are several travel agents, both online and 'offline', but there is only one travel agent where you can book fully online and pay with European and American payment gateways: (http://www.GhanaTicketSer...) . Also booking on the websites of the airlines themselves is possible: (http://www.flystarbow.com) and (http://www.flyafricaworld.com), but payment methods are limited there.
Roads are variable. In Accra most are fairly good. Significant improvements are being made on the main road between Accra and Kumasi. Most of the roads outside Accra apart from the major ones are dirt tracks. The road between Techiman and Bole is particularly bad and should be avoided if possible. For travel on most roads in the North of the country a 4x4 is required, a saloon car will cope with some of them in the dry season but is not recommended.
Also it should be noted that cars with foreign registration are not allowed to circulate between 6PM and 6AM. Only Ghanaian registered vehicles are allowed on the road at this time. Non compliance can result in fines and the impounding of the vehicle for the night.
A 'Tro-tro' is a term that covers almost any sort of vehicle that has been adapted to fit in as many people, possessions, and occasionally livestock, as possible. Tro-tros are typically old, 12-passenger VW or Mercedes-Benz vans. Similarly to 'shared' taxis, tro-tros will run along fixed routes and have fixed fares, and will rarely run with less than capacity [so be prepared to wait]. They are inexpensive cheaper than shared taxis and STC buses and fares should reflect distance traveled, however they have a questionable safety record and frequently breakdown. Breakdowns however are usually not too much of a problem since they will break down in a route where other tro-tro's run, so you can just grab another one. Although they generally run point to point they will usually pick and drop on route if required. They make runs within the city i.e. Circle to Osu for GH₵.20 as well as intercity routes. They are often the only option between remote towns but are not recommended for long journeys. Tro-tros are an excellent way to meet Ghanaians, and are always great for a cultural adventure. Sometimes they will make you pay extra for luggage, and occasionally they will try to overcharge very rarely.
If you feel like being an elite tro-tro rider, ask around for City Express, a newish service sporting the usual minivan, but with working brakes, non-stop travel, half the seats, and impressive air conditioning. It mostly runs between the larger cities along the coast, e.g., Takoradi, Accra, Aflao, et al.
STC is the main coach company. They operate long distance domestic and international services. Probably the safest way to travel long distance, and are also pretty quick compared to other options, although even on these services breakdowns are reasonably frequent. STC operate between Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Tamale, Cape Coast and other main cities. 'Express' or 'Air-conditioned' services are quicker and a lot more comfortable than the ordinary services and are now available on the Accra-Kumasi, Accra-Tamale, Accra-Bolgatanga routes. Buy your tickets a day in advance though, often times they will be full if you wait until the day of travel. Also, expect to pay for your luggage based upon its weight. It should rarely be over 1/3 the price of the ticket.
Several other companies also operate bus services between the major towns, these include OSA, Metrobus and Kingdom Travel, their service is marginally more reliable than tro-tros but there isn't much in it. Metrobus is by far the cheapest and best option going between Accra, Kumasi and Cape Coast but not recommended for tamale due to the hassle of obtaining a ticket amongst the massive crowds seeking this destination.
The VIP bus company is now the major carrier between Accra, Kumasi, etc. Its 25ghc each way in new a/c Yutong coaches ,6 hrs with a meal stop at the excellent 'Linda Dor'. No advance tickets ,turn up and go,every 15 to 30 mins departures.