Finland

Milk products

milk products
 

Cheese and other milk products are very popular in Finland. The most common varieties are mild hard cheeses like Edam and Emmental, but local specialities include:

milk products
Aura cheese

aurajuusto, a local variety of blue cheese, also used in soups, sauces and as a pizza topping.

milk products
Breadcheese

leipäjuusto or juustoleipä, a type of very mild-flavored grilled curd that squeaks when you eat it, best enjoyed warm with a dab of cloudberry jam

milk products
Piimä

A type of buttermilk beverage, thick and sour

milk products
Viili

A gelatinous, stretchy and sour variant of yoghurt

Meat dishes

meat dishes
Karelian stew

karjalanpaisti, a heavy stew usually made from beef and pork and optionally, lamb, carrots and onions, usually served with potatoes

meat dishes
Liver casserole

maksalaatikko, consisting of chopped liver, rice and raisins cooked in an oven; it tastes rather different from what you'd expect and not liver-y at all

meat dishes
Loop sausage

lenkkimakkara, a large, mildly flavored sausage; best when grilled and topped with a dab of sweet finnish mustard sinappi, and beer

meat dishes
Meat balls

lihapullat, lihapyörykät are as popular and tasty as in neighboring sweden

meat dishes
Reindeer

poro dishes, especially sauteed reindeer shavings poronkäristys, served with potato mash and lingonberries, not actually a part of the everyday finnish diet but a tourist staple and common in the frigid north

meat dishes
Swedish hash

"pyttipannu", originally from sweden, swedish: "pytt i panna" a hearty dish of potatoes, onions and any meaty leftovers on hand fried up in a pan and topped with an egg

meat dishes
Makkara

Traditional finnish sausage. affectionately called "the finnish man's vegetable" since the actual meat content may be rather low.

Seafood

seafood
 

With tens of thousands of lakes and a long coastline, fish is a Finnish staple, and there's a lot more on that menu than just salmon lohi. Specialities include:

seafood
Baltic herring

silakka, a small, fatty and quite tasty fish available pickled, marinated, smoked, grilled and in countless other varieties

seafood
Gravlax

"graavilohi", a pan-scandinavian appetizer of raw salted salmon

seafood
Smoked salmon

savulohi, not just the cold, thinly sliced, semi-raw kind but also fully cooked "warm" smoked salmon

seafood
Vendace

muikku, a speciality in eastern finland, a small fish served fried, heavily salted and typically with mashed potatoes

seafood
 

Other local fish to look out for include zander kuha, an expensive delicacy, pike hauki and perch ahven.

Other dishes

other dishes
Pea soup

hernekeitto, usually but not always with ham, traditionally eaten with a dab of mustard and served on thursdays; just watch out for the flatulence!

other dishes
Karelian pies

karjalanpiirakka, an oval 7 by 10 cm baked pastry, traditionally baked with rye flour, containing rice porridge or mashed potato, ideally eaten topped with butter and chopped egg munavoi

other dishes
Porridge

puuro, usually made from oats kaura, barley ohra, rice riisi or rye ruis and most often served for breakfast

Finnish cuisine is heavily influenced by its neighbors, the main staples being potatoes and bread with various fish and meat dishes on the side. Milk or cream is traditionally considered an important part of the diet and is often an ingredient in foods and a drink, even for adults. Various milk products such as cheeses are also produced. While traditional Finnish food is famously bland, the culinary revolution that followed joining the EU has seen a boom in classy restaurants experimenting with local ingredients, often with excellent results.

seasonal and regional specialities

Attack of the killer mushroomsThe false morel korvasieni has occasionally been dubbed the "Finnish fugu", as like the infamous Japanese pufferfish, an improperly prepared false morel can kill you. Fortunately, it's easily rendered safe by boiling just don't breathe in the fumes!, and prepared mushrooms can be found in gourmet restaurants and even canned.

From the end of July until early September it's worthwhile to ask for crayfish rapu menus and prices at better restaurants. It's not cheap, you don't get full from the crayfish alone and there are many rituals involved, most of which involve large quantities of ice-cold vodka, but it should be tried at least once. Or try to sneak onto a corporate crayfish party guestlist, places are extremely coveted at some. Around Christmas, baked ham is the traditional star of the dinner table, with a constellation of casseroles around it.

There are also regional specialties, including Eastern Finland's kalakukko a type of giant fish pie and Tampere's infamous blood sausage mustamakkara. Around Easter keep an eye out for mämmi, a type of brown sweet rye pudding which is eaten with cream and sugar. It looks famously unpleasant but actually tastes quite good.

dietary restrictions

Traditional Finnish cuisine relies heavily on meat and fish, but vegetarianism kasvissyönti is increasingly popular and well-understood, and will rarely pose a problem for travellers. Practically all restaurants offer vegetarian options, often marked with a "V" on menus.

Two ailments commonly found among Finns themselves are lactose intolerance laktoosi-intoleranssi, inability to digest the milk sugar lactose and coeliac disease keliakia, inability to digest gluten. In restaurants, lactose-free selections are often tagged "L" low-lactose products are sometimes called "Hyla" or marked with "VL", while gluten-free options are marked with "G". However, hydrolyzed lactose HYLA brand milk or lactose-free milk drink for the lactose intolerant is widely available, which also means that a lactose-free dish is not necessarily milk-free. Allergies are quite common among Finnish people, too, so restaurant workers are usually quite knowledgeable on what goes into each dish and often it is possible to get the dish without certain ingredients if specified.

Kosher and halal food are rare in Finland and generally not available outside very limited speciality shops and restaurants catering to the tiny Jewish and Islamic communities. Watch out for minced meat dishes like meatballs, which very commonly use a mix of beef and pork. The Jewish Community of Helsinki (http://www.jchelsinki.fi/) runs a small kosher deli in Helsinki.

desserts

For dessert or just as a snack, Finnish pastries abound and are often taken with coffee see Drink after a meal. Look for cardamom coffee bread pulla, a wide variety of tarts torttu, and donuts munkki. In summer, a wide range of fresh berries are available, including the delectable but expensive cloudberry lakka, and berry products are available throughout the year as jam hillo, soup keitto and a type of gooey clear pudding known as kiisseli.

Finnish chocolate is also rather good, with Fazer (http://www.fazermakeiset.fi/) products including their iconic Sininen "Blue" bar exported around the world. A more Finnish speciality is licorice lakritsi, particularly the strong, salty kind known as salmiakki, which gets its unique and acquired taste from ammonium chloride.

places to eat

Finns tend to eat out only on special occasions, and restaurant prices are correspondingly expensive. The one exception is lunchtime, when thanks to a government-sponsored lunch coupon system company cafeterias and nearly every restaurant in town offers set lunches for around €8-9, usually consisting of a main course, salad bar, bread table and a drink. University cafeterias, many of which are open to all, are particularly cheap with meals in the €2-4 range for students, although without local student ID you will usually need to pay about €5-7. There are also public cafeterias in office / administration areas that are open only during lunch hours on working days. While not particularly stylish and sometimes hard to find, those usually offer high-quality buffet lunch at a reasonable price typically €8.40 in 2011.

The cafe scene has quickly developed, especially since the 1990s and above all in Helsinki. The array of cakes and pastries is not perhaps as vast as in Central Europe, but the local special coffees lattes, mochas etc. are worth trying when it comes to the two big local coffee house chains: Wayne's Coffee originated in Sweden and Robert's Coffee Finland. You can now also find Starbucks in Finland.

For dinner, you'll be limited to generic fast food pizza, hamburgers, kebabs and such in the €5-10 range, or you'll have to splurge over €20 for a meal in a "nice" restaurant. For eating on the move, look for grill kiosks grilli, which serve sausages, hamburgers and other portable if not terribly health-conscious fare late into the night at reasonable prices. In addition to the usual hamburgers and hot dogs, look for meat pies lihapiirakka, akin to a giant savoury doughnut stuffed with minced meat and your choice of sausage, fried eggs and condiments. Hesburger (http://www.hesburger.fi) is the local fast-food equivalent of McDonald's, with a similar menu. They have a "Finnish" interpretation of a few dishes, such as a sour-rye chicken sandwich. Of course most international fast food chains are present, especially McDonald's, which offers many of their sandwich buns substituted with a sour-rye bun on request.

The Finnish word for buffet is seisova pöytä "standing table", and while increasingly used to refer to all-you-can-eat Chinese or Italian restaurants, the traditional meaning is akin to Sweden's smörgåsbord: a good-sized selection of sandwiches, fish, meats and pastries. It's traditionally eaten in three rounds — first the fish, then the cold meats, and finally warm dishes — and it's usually the first that is the star of the show. Though expensive and not very common in a restaurant setting, if you are fortunate enough to be formally invited to a Finn's home, they will likely have prepared a spread for their guest, along with plenty of coffee. Breakfast at better hotels is also along these lines and it's easy to eat enough to cover lunch as well!

If you're really on a budget, you can save a considerable amount of money by self-catering. Ready-to-eat casseroles and other basic fare that can be quickly prepared in a microwave can be bought for a few euros in any supermarket. Note that you're usually expected to weigh and label any fruits or vegetables yourself bag it, place it on the scale and press the numbered button. The correct number can be found from the price sign, and green signs mean possibly tastier but certainly more expensive organic luomu produce.

One should be aware that more often than not, cheap food contains disproportionate amounts of fat.

At restaurants, despite the high prices, portions tend to be quite small, at least when compared to USA and Canada, and even many European countries.

bread

Bread leipä is served with every meal in Finland, and comes in a vast array of varieties. Rye bread is the most popular bread in Finland. Typically Finnish ones include:

hapankorppu, dry, crispy and slightly sour flatbread, occasionally sold overseas as "Finncrisp"

limppu, catch-all term for big loaves of fresh bread

näkkileipä, another type of dark, dried, crispy rye flatbread

ruisleipä rye bread, can be up to 100% rye and much darker, heavier and chewier than American-style rye bread; unlike in Swedish tradition, Finnish rye bread is typically unsweetened and thus sour and even bitter.

rieska, unleavened bread made from wheat or potatoes, eaten fresh