Driving inside the historic center of Florence is virtually impossible.
Only residents with permits are allowed to drive there. Enforcement of the "Limited Traffic Zone" or "ZTL" is by camera. Violators will be tracked down and fined, but the fine may not arrive for a year or more after the infraction. The fines start at about €90. Once you enter the forbidden zone, it is virtually impossible to pass only one camera, and each time you do, it is a separate fine.
In addition, Florence has some of the tiniest streets in Europe, an amazingly fiendish one-way system that confuses even the locals, and some streets that just come to an abrupt end, with little or no warning.
Parking on the street in the historic center is out of the question. It may only be done by residents with a permit, and all other cars are towed away instantly - if not sooner - to some godforsaken suburb from which it will cost you hundreds of euros to get yours returned.
That said, you may be able to arrange a very temporary - about 30-minute - exemption through your hotel, which will need your license number and other information to make arrangements with the authorities. You will then have to get the car from the hotel out of the ZTL before the exemption expires.
A car can be useful to reach some destinations just outside the city centre, like Fiesole or Settignano these sights are also reachable by bus service, or for day trips to wonderful places such as Siena, Volterra, Arezzo, etc. It is possible, if a bit tricky to rent a car in Florence and get out of town and back to the car rental agency without violating the ZTL. Those tempted to do so, should make sure to get precise directions from the rental agency.
Taxis are available, but it may be best if you have your hotel or the restaurant you are eating at call ahead. Taxis should be called by phone and the nearest one available is sent to you through the company's radio system with its meter ticking away. In Florence, it can be difficult to hail a cab from the street curb. You either call for one or get one at the very few taxi stands. One popular taxi stand is at the central Santa Maria Novella Train Station and in a few major squares. The first taxi in the taxi stand line should be free - ask in case of doubt. Be aware that most taxis do not take credit card for payment. Be sure to have cash and ask in advance in case you only have a credit card with you. Please note that taxis in Florence are relatively expensive. Tipping is not expected, unless the driver helps you carry luggage etc.
The 'Firenze Card (http://www.firenzecard.it/) is a 72 hour pass for Florence allowing access to about 30 museums and free use of the public transport system. In some museums you can queue jump the reservations procedure with the pass but it is best to check with individual museums. The cost is €72 per person as of April 2015.
There is one tram line operating in the city of Florence. It connects Santa Maria Novella train station in central Florence with the southwestern suburb of Scandicci on a 7.4 kilometer route with a total of 14 stops. The tickets used on ATAF buses can also be used on the tram. Hours of operation: daily 500AM-1230AM. Frequency: 3-11 minutes depending on day and time of travel (http://www.gestramvia.it/...). Duration: about 23 minutes between Santa Maria Novella and Scandicci. This tram began service on 14 February 2010 and is the first streetcar line in the city of Florence since 1958.
How to find the tram stop at Firenze Santa Maria Novella train station: As you have your back to the trains, take the door on the right. There should be a pharmacy right beside it - which also sells the combined ATAF 90 minute ticket, currently €1.20. Otherwise, there is also a machine at the stop outside, but it is easier to buy in the station.
Unlike many other Italian cities, not many newsagents nor tobacconists sell the ATAF tickets. As such, you may wish to keep a few handy. Note that the shops may also sell the 4pc 90 minute tickets at a slightly cheaper €4.70
There is a bike rental service organized by the city. Bikes can be hired at several points in the city and returned to the same place. One of the most convenient for tourists is located at SMN station. There are other locations at many railway stations, but often with restricted opening hours.
While there are hills north and south of the center of town, almost all of the historic center of Florence is easy for bikers, because it is as flat as a hat - flatter than that. But there is a problem: Traffic is terrible with buses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, motorbikes, bicycles, and pedestrians are fighting for almost no space. So pay attention.
Beyond the city bikes, some of the hotels in town provide their guest with free bicycles. Bike shops also often rent bikes and some of them organize guided bike tours in the countryside.
Baja Bikes offers daily guided bike tours through Florence. In 3 hours you will see all the highlights of this beautiful city.
BikeCityGuide is a handy bike navigation app for those who want to discover Florence on their own. The city of Florence can be downloaded for free and contains descriptions to all important sightseeing places and gives the opportunity to make special touristic tours. Type in any address or famous point of interest to be guided to it.
Most of the major tourist sights in Florence are within easy walking distance of each other. It is possible to walk from one end of the historic center of Florence to the other - North-South or East-West in a half hour. Walking is not only an easy way to get around, it also offers the chance to 'take in' much more of the city life. Be warned though, that electric motor scooters are small enough to fit where cars cannot. They are silent but quick and in the summer they often travel into the plazas. Some of the streets in central Florence are closed to traffic. Many more are simply too narrow for buses to get through. Therefore, bus and car tours are not recommended. This is a very small, very compact city that really needs to be seen by foot. And, of course, if you need to, you can always buy a new pair of shoes in Florence.
Another way of getting around is by using the public buses from ATAF. A Single ticket costs €1.2 which is valid for 90 minutes. It could be bought at tabacchi shops selling tobacco which there is one inside the S.M.N train station. It could also be bought inside the bus. But it is advised to buy it in advance in a tabacchi so that you don't block the people getting into the bus at the door.
A day ticket costs €5 and a 3 day ticket costs €12. A four-ride ticket costs €4.50. Or buy 10 tickets for €12, or 35 tickets for €36 - perfect if you are a group and will stay a long weekend. To get the best price you may have to go to the central bus station. You can buy tickets at tabacchi shops selling tobacco, which are marked with official looking "T"s out front", kiosks/newsagents/bars where the symbol "Biglietti ATAF" is shown, as well as at the ATAF ticketing office at the bus station outside Santa Maria Novella train station. Remember to ask for a bus map. Several ticket options are available. One very convenient is the 4-rides ticket and the "Carta Agile". The former needs to be stamped when entering the bus from the front and rear doors of buses - the central door is supposed to be exit only; though now it is more accepted to enter from the central door. The latter has an embedded electronic chip and needs to be held close "swiped" to the upper part of the ticket machine inside the bus: the "beep" of the machine will inform you that a ticket has been paid and the display will show you how many more tickets "swipes" you have left. Within 90 minutes of stamping/swiping you can hop-off & hop-on on any bus of the urban ATAF network. Unfortunately and completely against Italian law, it is not uncommon to see bus drivers talking merrily on their mobile phone while driving. Don't expect riders to complain about it and don't panic - they will still drive with the same non-comfortable style as when they are "only driving". Hold tight to hand rails as Florence traffic is unpredictable and frequent sudden braking is necessary. Bus rides are not by all means "smooth". Buses are "safe" but pick pocketing is quite common. Please keep a close eye to your belongings and avoid showing off cash/jewelry/etc. especially in very crowded buses especially for lines 17/23/14/22 - generally speaking any crowded bus can give a chance to pick pocket.