Minimum validity of travel documents
EU, EEA and Swiss citizens, as well as non-EU citizens who are visa-exempt e.g. U.S. Citizens and Australians, need only produce a passport which is valid for the entirety of their stay in Italy.
Other nationals who are required to have a visa eg: South Africans, however, must have a passport which has at least 3 months' validity beyond their period of stay in Italy.
For more information, visit this webpage of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy.
Italy is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country or you may have to clear immigration but not customs travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country.
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.
Foreign military entering Italy under a Status of Forces Agreement do not require a passport and need only show their valid military identification card and travel orders. Their dependants, however, are not exempt from visa requirements.
All non-EU, EEA or Swiss citizens staying in Italy for 90 days or less have to declare their presence in Italy within 8 days of arrival. If your passport was stamped on arrival in Italy, the stamp counts as such a declaration. Generally, a copy of your hotel registration will suffice if you are staying at a hotel i.e. a copy of your passport ID page will be retained by hotel staff and they will complete the paperwork for you. Otherwise, however, you will have to go to a police office to complete the form dichiarazione di presenza yourself. Failing to do so may result in expulsion. Travellers staying longer than 90 days do not need to complete this declaration, but must instead have an appropriate visa and must obtain a residence permit permesso di soggiorno.
Eurolines has are regular buses between Ljubljana, Slovenian coastal towns and Istria Croatia and Trieste Italy. These services are cheap and from Trieste onward connections with the rest of Italy are plentiful. There's also a bus that goes from Malmö, Sweden via Denmark, Germany and Switzerland to Italy.
Italy has a national airline, Alitalia, as well as several smaller carriers, such as Meridiana. Germany's Lufthansa started an Italian subsidiary that tries to become a main rival for Alitalia with a hub in Milan.
Italy is one of the main battle grounds for European low cost airlines several routes to/from and within Italy are offered. The larger airports are, of course, served by the major European airlines.
Intercontinental airlines mainly arrive in Rome and Milan, with Rome being the main international gateway into the country.
Most of mid-range international flights arrive to the following Italian cities:
Rome - with two airports: Fiumicino FCO - Leonardo Da Vinci and Ciampino CIA for budget airlines
Milan - with two airports: Malpensa MXP and Linate LIN; in addition, Bergamo BGY - Orio al Serio is sometimes referred to as "Milan Bergamo"
Bologna BLQ – Guglielmo Marconi
Naples NAP - Capodichino
Pisa PSA - Galileo Galilei
Venice VCE – Marco Polo; in addition, Treviso TSF - Antonio Canova is sometimes referred to as "Venice Treviso"
Turin TRN – Sandro Pertini
Palermo PMO - Punta Raisi
Catania CTA - Vincenzo Bellini
Bari BRI - Palese
Genoa GOA - Cristoforo Colombo
See also Ferries in the MediterraneanThere are several ferries departing from Greece, Albania, Montenegro and Croatia. Most of them arrive at Venice, Ancona, Bari and Brindisi.
Some regular ferry services connect the island of Corsica in France to Genoa, Livorno, Civitavecchia, Naples and North of Sardinia. Barcelona is connected to Civitavecchia and to Genoa.
Some regular ferry services connect Sicily and Naples to some North African harbours.
There is a hydrofoil service running from Pozzallo on the south-eastern coast of Sicily to Malta.
There is a year-round service between Trieste and Albania and summer services between Trieste and Pirano Slovenia and Parenzo and Rovigno in Croatian Istria. The service between Trieste and Rovigno takes less than 2 hours which is quicker than the bus service.
From Austria via Vienna, Innsbruck and Villach
From France via Nice, Lyon, and Paris
From Germany via Munich
From Spain via Barcelona
From Switzerland via Basel, Geneva and Zurich
Direct connection by train with eastern Europe Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia no longer exists. The only way to reach Italy by train from these countries is via Vienna or Villach; it's also possible reach by train Nova Gorica (in Slovenia, then cross the border by foot and take a train in Italy in the railway station of Gorizia.