From Germany

From Germany
Air Berlin

( flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Berlin Berlin Tegel, Duesseldorf Düsseldorf International, Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport and Stuttgart Stuttgart Airport. There is also a connection from Berlin Berlin Tegel to Saint Petersburg Pulkovo Airport. Approximate one-way price — €110

From Germany

( flies to Moscow Vnukovo International Airport from Berlin Berlin Schönefeld, Cologne Köln Bonn Airport, Hamburg Hamburg Airport and Stuttgart Stuttgart Airport. There are also connections from Berlin Berlin Schönefeld and Cologne Köln Bonn Airport to Saint Petersburg Pulkovo Airport. Approximate one-way price — US$100.

From Germany

flies: to Moscow Domodedovo from Frankfurt and Munich; to Moscow Vnukovo from Berlin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Hamburg; to St. Petersburg Pulkovo 2 from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich; to Kazan, Nizhniy Novgorod, Perm, Samara and Yekaterinburg from Frankfurt.

From Greece

From Greece
Aegean Airlines

( flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Athens Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport ( from 155€ return ticket, Thessaloniki Macedonia Airport (http://www.airport-thessa...) from 177€ return ticket.

From Greece
Astra Airlines

(http://www.astra-airlines...) flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport, Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport, Omsk, Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg Pulkovo Airport, from Thessaloniki Macedonia Airport (http://www.thessalonikiai...)

From Italy

From Italy

( flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Ancona Raffaello Sanzio Airport on Wednesday. Approximate one-way price — €140.

From Italy
Wind jet

( flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Catania Fontanarossa International Airport, Forlì L. Ridolfi, Palermo and Verona. Approximate one-way price — €90.



( flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Barcelona Barcelona Airport. Approximate one-way price — €179.


( also files to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Barcelona Barcelona Airport. One-way fare €110-€180 if booked in advance.

From/via United Arab Emirates

From/via United Arab Emirates

( flies from Dubai to Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow and to Pulkovo Airport in Saint Petersburg starting November 1 2011. New jets, high quality, a little pricey but sometimes they have really cheap sales. A good option to connect if flying from India, South-East Asia or Australia.

From/via United Arab Emirates

( flies from Abu Dhabi to Domodedovo International Airport. Relatively new player on the highly competitive market of Europe to Asia/Australia connections. Offers one-way fares which are just slightly more expensive than a half of the return fare also, return price generally does not become higher in case of a longer stay up to 1 year, the strategy otherwise employed almost exclusively by low-cost airlines. Offers very competitive rates also, especially for the connecting flights.

By bike
By bike

International cycling routes Eurovelo are two and include EV2 Capitals Route from Ireland to Moscow and EV10 Baltic Sea Cycle Route Hansa circuit interconnecting Saint-Petersburg with Estonia and Finland.

Closed Cities

If you've managed to get into Russia visa or not, be careful of where you travel: Russia has cities and towns that are closed to the public as well as foreigners, such as Mirny and Vilyuchisk. Most of these closed cities are believed to be for nuclear industry reasons or space research. Special permission from the government is required for anyone wishing to enter them. Entering them without permission can lead to imprisonment.

By bus
By bus

A few bus companies, most notably Eurolines, operate international coach services from a number of destinations to Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Tallinn, Helsinki, Riga, Vilnius, Warsaw and Berlin all have regular services to Russia.

By ship
By ship

Ferry services operate in the summer between Sochi and Turkey's Trabzon. In Vladivostok there is a scheduled ro-ro ferry to Busan and numerous lines to the different Japanese ports, however they are mostly oriented to the used Japanese car imports and less to tourism, there is also a weekly service in summer between Korsakov on Sakhalin and Wakkanai on the Japanese island Hokkaido. Cruise ships are also call to Russian ports frequently. There is a boat connection from Lappeenranta, Finland to Vyborg.

There is now daily overnight service between Helsinki and St. Petersburg on St. Peter Line that does not require a visa for stays less than 3 days but you are obliged to buy a tour. In case of cruise ships you need to arrange so called Blanket visa it in advance. Read more in St Petersburg Get In section.

By train
By train

RZhD Russian Railways РЖД runs reliable services across dizzying distances. Eastern and Central Europe are well connected to Moscow and to a lesser extent Saint Petersburg. Moscow is also connected to some surprising destinations throughout Western Europe and Asia.

Except for the swish new carriages that run from Moscow to Nice and Paris, the international trains generally offer the same quality of compartment as the domestic trains see Get around: By train.

The Russian word for railway station Vokzal, Вокзал is somehow related to Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens, a XIX century London attraction. Toilets in the vokzal are free if you have a ticket for an upcoming train unlike in Vauxhall, London.

By train

Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are very well connected to Russia with many trains daily from cities throughout each country. Helsinki Finland has four high speed trains daily to St Petersburg and one overnight train to Moscow. Riga Latvia, Vilnius Lithuania and Tallinn Estonia each have at least one overnight or daytime train to Moscow and St Petersburg.

Kaliningrad has a short train connection to Gdynia in Poland and the trains from Kaliningrad to Moscow and St Petersburg pass through Vilnius in the afternoon.

Beyond Russia's immediate neighbours and former Soviet dominions, direct trains connect Moscow with Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Switzerland.

Start your Trans Siberian adventure in Berlin and take The Sibirjak, which connects Berlin directly to a baffling array of cities deep inside Russia: Adler, Kazan, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Samara, Sochi, St Petersburg, Ufa, Yekaterinburg and even Astana in Kazakhstan!

Western Europe has a different track gauge from Russia, Finland and the CIS so bogies must be exchanged when the train crosses into the ex-Soviet countries usually Ukraine or Belarus. This adds a couple of hours to the long wait already encountered for immigration. You can stay on the train as the wheels are being changed so it won't disrupt your sleep too much.

CAVEAT: Trains to Moscow from Berlin, Warsaw and Prague pass through Belarus, which presents an additional visa requirement for most tourists check the Visa information for Belarus. Getting a Belarusian visa is neither as difficult nor as costly as getting a Russian visa, but it is a nuisance. No type of visa can be obtained at the border crossing, so you have to apply in advance at a nearest Belarusian consulate. Otherwise you'll be mercilessly kicked out of the train in the middle of the night for further information check Belarusian passport and customs controls. This hassle can be avoided by taking a longer route through Kiev, since Ukraine is visa-free for Westerners

By train

Moscow is connected to all the former Soviet Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan at least 2-3 times per week. Journeys are long 3.5-5 days. To the Caucasus, there is a service from Moscow to Baku, Azerbaijan 3 days; however, the Azerbaijan-Russia border is only open to CIS passport holders. There is also a service from Moscow to Sukhumi in the disputed territory of Abkhazia. The Trans-Siberian Railway spans the entire country and connects with Chinese cities such as Beijing and Harbin, as well as Mongolia's Ulaanbaatar. There is also a very infrequent service from Moscow to Pyongyang, North Korea essentially the Trans-Siberian plus a short link from Vladivostok to Pyongyang but this line isn't open to Western tourists.

Overstaying A Visa

If you overstay, even by a few minutes, you will likely be prohibited from leaving until you obtain a valid exit visa. You may be able to obtain a visa extension from the consular officer at a border against the payment of a fine if you overstayed by up to three days, but this is not guaranteed. Generally, though, obtaining an extension requires an intervention by your sponsor, a payment of a fine, and a wait of up to three weeks.

Be careful if your flight leaves after midnight and be aware of the time at which the train crosses the border. Border guards will not let you depart if you're leaving even 10 minutes after your visa expires! A common pitfall is the Helsinki-bound train, which only enters Finland after midnight.

If your overstay was due to reasons such as medical problems, the Federal Migration Service may instead issue a Home Return Certificate rather than an exit visa which is valid to depart Russia within ten days of issue.


A Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 90 days:Abkhazia, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Fiji, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, South Ossetia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.

B Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 60 days:South Korea

C Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 30 days:Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cuba, Macau, Macedonia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Serbia, Seychelles from 14 Dec 2015, Thailand and Turkey suspended from 1 Jan 2016.

D Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 14 days or others if indicated:Belarus unlimited period, Hong Kong and Nauru.

Note that, as of 1 January 2014, travellers availing themselves of a visa exemption are only permitted to remain in Russia without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day period. Exceptions are for Ukrainian citizens and Belarusian citizens.

Transit through a few airports, including Moscow Sheremetyevo, Moscow Domodedovo, Moscow Vnukovo, St. Petersburg Pulkovo and Yekaterinburg Koltsovo airports, does not require a transit visa provided the traveller has a confirmed onward flight and remains in the airport for no more than 24 hours. Flights to and from Belarus are considered domestic; therefore, visa-free transit is not available. Transit to and from Kazakhstan which is in customs union with Russia is visa-free only through Moscow Vnukovo airport. Visas can, in some limited cases, be obtained from consular officers at the airports.

A "visa-free" regime will be introduced for visitors from all nations for the duration of the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which will be held in Russia.

By plane
By plane

Moscow and Saint Petersburg are served by direct flights from most European capitals, and Moscow also has direct flights from any cities in East Asia, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and North America. US non-stop flights from the United States to Russia are offered by Singapore from Houston to Moscow, Domodedovo, Delta from New York and Atlanta to Moscow, Sheremetyevo, United Airlines from Washington to Moscow, Domodedovo and Aeroflot from New York, Washington and Los Angeles to Moscow, Sheremeryevo. There are also non-stop services offered from Toronto and Montreal, Canada to Moscow, Domodedovo operated by Transaero.

All airports are now conveniently connected to Moscow with Aeroexpress trains which depart every 30 minutes from/to Domodedovo and Sheremetyevo, and every hour from Vnukovo. They operate 06:00-23:59. The fare is RUB400 May 2015, travel time is 35 minutes to/from Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo, and 45 minutes to/from Domodedovo. There are no trains or buses that connect the airports without passing through central Moscow. In Sheremetyevo, Aeroexpress trains arrive at Terminal E and F, Terminal D is in 5 minutes walk from them through a gallery. Terminals B and C are served by buses only. There is a shuttle bus available between Terminals D,E,F and Terminals B,C. Using taxi is discouraged, as traveling to/between the airports is very expensive averages at RUB1500 from Moscow.

Please, mind that there are 3 international airports in Moscow: Sheremetyevo SVO in the northwest, Domodedovo DME in the south and Vnukovo VKO in the southwest. Getting between these airports is quite challenging, because there are no means of rapid transfer between them, so if you are planning a transfer trip, mind airports for all your flights. Usual taxi fee for a trip between any of airports is about 1500 rubles, which is expensive unless you travel with others. You can, of course, use public means of transportation which are much cheaper ranging from 200-500 rubles per person depending on means you choose, but if you don't speak Russian at all and first time in the country — you better think twice before attempting that, you might easily get lost.

Airport Sheremetyevo has undergone major expansion in 2010 with two new terminals commissioned and consists of five terminals. Terminals B old Sheremetyevo-1 and C are located on the northern edge of the airport and provide mostly domestic and charter services. Terminals D and E operate since December 2010 along with older Terminal F old Sheremetyevo-2, built for Summer Olympics in Moscow in 1980. Terminal D hosts domestic and international Aeroflot flights, Terminals E and F host international flights operated mostly by SkyTeam alliance.

Domodedovo is a quite modern airport with a single spacious terminal. It serves both domestic and international flights by most Russian and international companies. Unfortunately, over a few last years, the airport has been increasingly suffering from overcrowding.

Vnukovo is a smaller airport and is generally operated by low-cost airlines. As of March 2012, it undergoes a major renovation with a construction of a new spacious terminal building. A few Star Alliance airlines have recently switched their operations to Vnukovo.

There are airports in all large cities in Russia. Some international service can be found in: Novosibirsk, Sochi, Vladivostok, Kaliningrad, Ekaterinburg. International service to other destinations is much more limited.

Local airlines are listed in Get around.

From Austria
By plane

NIKI flies to Moscow Domodedovo International Airport from Vienna Vienna International Airport. Approximate one-way price — €99.

From Norway

( flies to Saint Petersburg Pulkovo Airport ( from Oslo Oslo Airport. Approximate one-way price — €94.

From/via Qatar
By plane

Qatar Airways, another player on the Middle Eastern intercontinental connections market, files from Doha to Domodedovo International] airport. One of just 5 airlines of the world rated by Skytrax as 5-star. Nevertheless, connecting airfares from Asia are often quite modest.


Just like in many European countries, upon arriving in any new dwelling, you must be registered within 7 business days of arriving. Your host at that dwelling not necessarily the one who issued the invitation is responsible for registering you. Registration is done at post offices, requires filling out a form and costs some money equivalent of a few dollars. The proof of registration is a separate piece of paper with a big blue stamp on it. Border guards have neither authority nor possibility to check if the duty to register has ever existed and evaded.

Nevertheless, it is worth insisting to be registered at least in the first city you visit. Corrupt check-in staff at dodgy hotels will not let you check in without seeing your prior registration if you've been in Russia for more than 7 business days. Corrupt police and border staff in remote areas will insist that a lack of registration is your fault; it may cost you more than paying the registration fee.

Large hotels are accredited with the Federal Migratory Service and arrange registration automatically and without fee on the day of arrival.

By car
By car

Traveling in Russia by car can be difficult. Roads may be poorly marked, if marked at all, and poorly maintained, especially outside the cities and towns. Car rental services are only starting to develop in major cities such as Moscow or Saint Petersburg, and are expensive.

Crossing the border by car is a peculiar entertainment.

There is no doubt that car travel is the best way to see the country, but it is a risky enterprise which is recommended only for the brave and capable.

Russian highways have highway patrol police ДПС - DPS. If you have a foreign license plate, prepare to pay a bribe USD5-20 in some of the most corrupt regions e.g., in the Caucasus. Russian traffic rules are very numerous and you will be found violating some of them. If you decide not to pay, at best you should expect to spend several hours at every road block.

Service is scarce and poor, and the countryside can be quite dangerous without experience and fluency in the Russian language.

It is possible to travel safely by car in Russia using a private licensed guide. Traveling independently is not recommended, especially for the non-Russian speaker. Guides generally provide their own cars or vans and know the roads, the customs and the countryside making seeing small towns and historic sites possible.

Arrival And Customs

On arriving in Russia except from Belarus, you'll have to fill out a migration card. As in most places, one half is surrendered on entry and the other portion should remain with your passport until you leave Russia except to Belarus. It is usually printed in both Russian and English though other languages may be available. Upon leaving Russia, a lost migration card may be overlooked with the help of a nominal fine. Belarus is a special case because Russia and Belarus run a common border and share the same migration card.

Usually, you will be permitted to enter and remain in Russia for the term of your visa or the term stipulated by visa-exemption agreement, if applicable. Immigration officers are very unlikely to use their power to decide otherwise.

Those who enter Russia with valuable electronic items or musical instruments especially violins that look antique and expensive, antiques, large amounts of currency, or other such items are required to declare them on the customs entry card and must insist on having the card stamped by a customs officer upon arrival. Even if the customs officer claims that it is not necessary to declare such items, insist on a stamp on your declaration. Having this stamp may prevent considerable hassle fines, confiscation upon departure from Russia should the customs agent at departure decide that an item should have been declared upon entry.