Accommodations in Canada vary substantially in price depending on time and place. In most cities and many tourist areas, expect to pay upwards of $100 or more for a good hotel room. If inquiring always ask if taxes are included, because some offer it with taxes included, some not.
Hotels play an integral part of Canadian history, with some of the country's most well known landmarks being hotels. The Canadian Railway Hotels are a series of grand hotels that were constructed in major cities Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Windsor, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec, St. John's and Halifax in the early 1900s. Most of these are still standing and owned by corporations such as Fairmont Hotels & Resorts. The Grand Railway Hotels are all four star franchises, with prices ranging from $150-400 a night depending on the city and the size of the room. These hotels are architecturally stunning and sumptuously decorated, and in addition to being exceptional places to stay, are tourist attractions in their own right. Even if you are not staying in a Grand Railway hotel, it would be more than worth it to explore the main lobby or dine at the hotel restaurant.
In rural areas, motels short for "motor hotel" are small, simple hotels where you might pay as little as $40-60 for a night's accommodation especially in the off season. In many areas, a B&B bed and breakfast is a nice option. These are normally people's homes with suites for guests. The price - anywhere from $45 a night to $140 a night - usually includes a breakfast of some kind in the morning. Try (http://www.bbcanada.com/) for listings.
Other options include cottage rentals on the lakes and in the countryside and apartment rentals in the cities. Prices compare to hotels and motels and this type of lodging provides some comfort of home while you are traveling.
Youth hostels are a good choice, offering lodging in shared dorms $20-40 or private rooms $45-80. Some useful resources are Hostelling International Canada (http://www.hihostels.ca/), Backpackers Hostels Canada (http://www.backpackers.ca/), SameSun Backpacker Lodges (http://www.samesun.com/) and Pacific Hostel Network (http://www.pacifichostels.com/) which also covers Alaska and the Northwestern U.S.. Most hostels in Canada meet very high standards.
Some universities will rent their dormitory more commonly called "residence" or "rez" rooms in the academic off season -May- August. Check university websites for more information.
Finally, there is a huge number of campgrounds in Canada. These range from privately owned R.V. parks to the publicly operated campgrounds in national and provincial parks, and are almost always well-kept and generally very beautiful.