Passports And Visas
Although Greenland is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, due to its near-independent autonomy it is not a member of the European Union, European Economic Area or Schengen Area. As such, with a couple of exceptions, immigration restrictions are applied to all non-Nordic Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Icelandic nationals, including citizens of other EU member states.
Almost all visitors need a passport to enter. National identity cards are accepted for Nordic citizens, and de facto for other EU/EEA citizens no border control takes place in Greenland, and Air Greenland and Air Iceland accept all EU/EEA ID cardsThe following persons have unlimited access to Greenland and do not require a visa for any length of stay:
Citizens of Denmark
Citizens of other Nordic Passport Union countries: Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Canadians who are members of certain Inuit First Nations in the territory of Nunavut.
The following groups of persons can visit Greenland for up to 90 days in a half year without a visa or any additional permissions:
Citizens or permanent residents regardless of nationality of any EU/EEA member state not named above or Switzerland.
Citizens of Albania*, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina*, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan*** Republic of China, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National Overseas, Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
All others will require a visa. Keep in mind that Schengen area visas issued for visits to mainland Denmark are not valid for Greenland or the Faroe Islands. You will need a separate visa, which can be applied for at any Danish diplomatic post or embassy along with your Schengen visa for Denmark or Iceland if you are transiting through one of those countries. If you are flying through Nunavut, you would need a Canadian temporary resident or transit visa.
If you're planning work or study in Greenland, you'll need an appropriate permit, although some types of work teaching, consulting, artists, installation technicians, and a few others as well as short term research are exempt from needing a work/ study permit if the time spent in Greenland is less than 90 days. For more information see (http://www.nyidanmark.dk/...).
Border formalities in Greenland are minimal - unless there's a serious issue you won't even see an immigration officer on arrival or have your passport stamped. Customs screenings are usually "behind the scenes", so if you have anything to declare or need your passport stamped eg for a residence permit you will likely need to seek out border staff yourself.
If you stay on the typical tourist paths you do not need any permissions, but any expeditions including any trips to the national park, which by definition are expeditions need a special permit from the Danish polar centre. If travelling with an agency they will usually take care of the paperwork for you. If you are entering or travelling through Thule Air Base, you also need a permission from the Danish department of foreign affairs, since it is a US military area except for children under 15, Danish police and military, US military or US diplomats. See Qaanaaq for details.
Trans-oceanic service to Greenland either lands at Kangerlussuaq IATA: SFJ Danish: Søndre Strømfjord, English: Sondrestrom, or Narsarsuaq IATA: UAK the only airports in the country which can accept anything larger than a turboprop. The capital Nuuk IATA: GOH is also seeing an increasing amount of international traffic from Iceland and Canada in the summer.
SAS ceased its operations to Greenland in 2009 and Atlantic Airways sometime before that. Except on the Reykjavik-Nuuk route, where there is some competition, getting to Greenland is expensive, although sometimes travel agents are able to get discounts through agreements with Greenland Tourism.
Two airlines currently provide scheduled service to the country:
Air Greenland(http://www.airgreenland.gl), the flag carrier offers several options for reaching Greenland:
Year-round, a daily return between Copenhagen Denmark and Kangerlussuaq with a second daily return in the summer season contracted out to Danish carrier JetTime. From Kangerlussaq, you can reach any other city or settlement in the country, including the capital Nuuk, through Air Greenland's domestic network.Seasonally, Air Greenland has several departures each week between Copenhagen and Narsarsuaq, operated by JetTime.June through September, two weekly returns from Keflavik Airport in Iceland Icelandair's hub to both Nuuk and Narsarsuaq. With plentiful flights between the United States and Iceland, this is by far the easiest way to get to Greenland from North America. It's also the most affordable as it's the only route Air Greenland has any competition on. Also June through September, starting in 2012, twice weekly service between Iqaluit in Canada and Nuuk. Through codeshare agreements with FirstAir, it is possible to purchase a ticket originating in Ottawa YOW from around DKK 10,000 $2,500 return. Air Greenland only sells tickets through its own website and travel agents, fares are not advertised on Expedia, Priceline, or any consolidator website. Despite minority ownership by SAS, Air Greenland is not part of the Star Alliance network nor has codeshares through SAS or any other major carrier. Interlining baggage and a single reservation may be possible - consult your travel agent.
Air Iceland(http://www.airiceland.is) operates year-round flights from Reykjavik to Kulusuk, Ittoqqortoormiit and Nuuk and additionally to Narsarsuaq and Ilulissat during the summer months. Bear in mind that Air Iceland is not the same carrier as Icelandair, operates out of the downtown Reykjavik airport domestic and Greenland flights only, rather than the international airport at Keflavik, which Icelandair uses. If you arrive on Icelandair from North America or Europe, you'll need to transfer airports, and you should allow at least four hours between flights for this. If you are vacationing in Iceland, one popular day excursion is to fly from Reykjavik to Kulusuk, where traditional handicrafts are on sale, before returning to the comparative comforts of Iceland.
There are also numerous charter outfits serving Greenland from Europe and North America, and frequently if you're on a package tour to Greenland from North America a chartered flight is included. Scientific and technical personnel travelling from North America for research purposes typically fly into Kangerlussuaq aboard New York Air National Guard C-130s.
Greenland's airports are very private aviation friendly if the weather is right, the name of Greenland's airport service is Mittarfeqarfiit.
Realistically, there is no ferry service from Europe or North America.
There are cruise ships from both continents that visit Greenland:
Oceanwide Expeditions(http://www.oceanwide-expe...) explores the most remote places in and around the Arctic region with their own ships and expedition crew. Passengers are taken to remote locations such as Disko Bay, Scoresby Sund, Aasiaat and Maniitsoq. Exploring the Greeland coastline, passengers can enjoy the wildlife and dramatic views of Greenland scenery.
Hurtigruten and Silversea have cruises to Greenland going from Iceland.
Aurora Expeditions(http://www.auroraexpediti...) has various tours to the Arctic region with their own ship Polar Pioneer and expedition crew. Locations include Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen & more
Sometimes large luxurious cruise ships stop in South Greenland when crossing the Atlantic, for example Holland America Line and Oceania Cruises