Australia

Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa. All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.

If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa. For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy.

Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age. In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'. Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length. A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry. Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year.

Australia does not have universities whose prestige competes with Harvard or the other Ivies in the US or Oxford or Cambridge in the UK. However many are ranked in the top 200 in the world Times Higher Education Supplement.

All tuition at university level is in English, save for courses that specifically focus on other languages. Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol.

Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: coursework and research. Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level. Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level.

Family Days Out

Fun things for to do with the kids in Australia.

minimum wage

Minimum wage rates are under the jurisdiction of the federal government; consequently it's the same $17.29 an hour in all parts of Australia, although there are other minimum wages depending on your job, years of experience, how much education you got, how long you've been done with your education and your previous job history, so this minimum wage can fluctuate a vast amount

sponsored work visas

The easiest way to get a work visa is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you. However, this is just 'easier', not 'easy' as such. Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia, and the approval will take several months. If in search of sponsorship, be prepared for a long wait. Note that getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process, and that you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials before it can be granted among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis. Check with your local Australian High Commission, Consulate or Embassy and the the Immigration Department's website (http://www.immi.gov.au/).

working holidaymaker scheme

Australia has a working holidaymaker program for 18-30 yr old citizens of certain countries. It allows a stay in Australia for 12 months from the time of first entry. You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer. The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs. If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: office skills to be used for temp work; or hospitality skills to be used for bar or restaurant work. An alternative is seasonal work like fruit-picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities. Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12 month visa.

You can apply online for a working holiday visa, but you must not be in Australia at the time. It takes just a few hours to process usually and costs about $420 as of June 2014. On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer.

immigration

You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa. You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted. After four years of permanent residency you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship.

payment and taxes

Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts. Open a bank account as soon as you arrive. Your passport will not be enough ID to open a bank account. You will need to show the bank teller 100 points of ID (http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au...).

As soon as you have an address it is wise to apply for a Tax File Number TFN. You can apply for it online though, only in Australia for free at the Australian Tax Office website (http://www.ato.gov.au/), though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices. The Australian financial year runs from July 1 to June 30, and tax returns for each financial year are due on October 30, four months after the accounting period concludes. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return.

Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf. Temporary visitors who are not citizens of either Australia or New Zealand can have this money returned to them (http://www.ato.gov.au/sup...) when they leave Australia.

Gamble

gamble
 

It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book.

gamble
Casinos

Crown casino in melbourne is the largest in the southern hemisphere, nicely located at southbank, but there are others scattered in every capital city as well as cairns, launceston, the gold coast and townsville.

gamble
Day at the races

All capital cities have horse racing every weekend, with on-track and off-track betting available, they are usually family occasions, and fashion and being seen are part of the event. just about every pub in new south wales will have a tab, where you can place a bet without leaving your chair at the bar. greyhound racing and trotting happens in the evenings, usually with smaller crowds, more beer, and less fashion. smaller country towns have race meetings every few months or even annually. these are real events for the local communities, and see the smaller towns come to life. head outback to the birdsville races, or if you find the streets deserted it is probably ten past three on the first tuesday in november the running of the melbourne cup.

gamble
The unusual

The lizard races, cane toad races, camel races, crab races. betting on these races is totally illegal, and at you will find the tib totally illegal betting around the back of the shed at the annual guinea pig races at grenfell.

gamble
Two up

If you are around for anzac day 25 april, then betting on coins thrown into the air will be happening at your local rsl club, wherever you are.

gamble
slot machines

Australia has almost a quarter of all the slot machines locally known as "pokies" or "poker machines" in the world, and more than half of these are located in New South Wales, where most pubs and clubs have gaming rooms labelled "VIP lounges" for legal reasons where one can "have a slap" and go for the feature.

gamble
every town and suburb in Australia has a TAB

If none of this appeals, and you just have too much money in your pocket, every town and suburb in Australia has a TAB. Pick your sport, pick a winner, and hand over your money at the counter.

gamble
 

Gambling is illegal for under-18's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children.

Diving

diving
Snorkelling

Take a trip out to the great barrier reef on the queensland coast, or the ningaloo reef off the coast of western australia. or take a trip out to julian rocks off byron bay, or just dive in off the beach to see the tropical fish in bundaberg.

diving
 

Scuba Diving

Universities

universities
 

There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport. Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia. Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation.

universities
 

Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level. You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences. Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies.

Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering.

universities
 

The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities. Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income. Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester.

Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees. A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs. These are awarded by individual universities.

Volunteering

volunteering
 

There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia. Many worldwide organisations offer extended travel for those wanting to volunteer their time to work with locals on projects such as habitat restoration, wildlife sanctuary maintenance & development, scientific research, & education programs.

volunteering
Australian Volunteers

(http://www.australianvolu...).

volunteering
World Wildlife Fund

au, (http://www.wwf.org.au/act...).

volunteering
WWOOF Australia

(http://www.wwoof.com.au).

Swim

swim
in the surf

Australia has seemingly endless sandy beaches. follow the crowds to the world famous bondi beach in sydney, or surfers paradise on the gold coast. or find a stretch all for yourself but beware of dangerous rips on beaches, it is considerably safer to find a patrolled beach. the surf is smaller and warmer in the tropical north, where the reef breaks the swell, and larger and colder in the south with waves rolling in from the southern ocean. and yes, in the middle it is just right.

swim
in calm tropical oceans

Cable beach in broome is swept pristine daily by the tide, has perfect sand, and warm water - go in winter.

swim
in thermal pools

South of darwin there are many natural thermal pools such as berry springs & mataranka, surrounded by palms and tropical foliage.

swim
in freshwater lakes

Inland australia tends to be dry, but there are freshwater lakes where you would least expect them. explore inland of cairns at the atherton tablelands, or head outback to the currawinya national park.

swim
in rivers

If its hot, and there is water, there will be a place to swim. wherever you are, just ask around for the favourite swimming spot, with a waterhole and rope to swing on. watch out for crocodiles.

swim
in man-made pools

The local swimming pool is often the hub of community life on a summer sunday in the country towns of new south wales and victoria. many of the beachside suburbs of sydney have man made rock pools for swimming by the ocean beaches.

swim
on the beach

! find your spot by the water, and get out the towel. tropical north in the winter, down south in the summer. as always when in australia, protect yourself from the sun.

Activities

activities
 

Bushwalking is a popular Australian activity. You can go bushwalking in the many National parks and Rainforests in the country.

Golf

activities
Rock Climbing
activities
Mountain Biking

Try the trails in the snowy mountains or black mountain in canberra, or cycle for days along the munda biddi mountain bike trail in western australia.

activities
Horse Riding

The horse has a rich tradition in the settlement of australia since the arrival of the first european settlers. relying on the horse to travel the vast distances and harsh environments of australia was the foundation of a strong and lasting relationship between australians and their horses. today horse riding in australia includes many recreational and occupational activities from cattle musters on vast stations, to the multi-million dollar racing industry. on the outskirts of towns and cities and out in the rural landscape, you will see the many pony paddocks and much loved horses that are a testament to the ongoing passion and commitment australian horse owners have to their horses and the enjoyment they bring.

activities
 

Skiing. New South Wales and Victoria have well developed ski facilities. Tasmania can also have skiing for a few months of the year, given the right weather. See Winter sports in Australia

activities
Sky Diving

All around australia

activities
Hot Air Ballooning

In canberra, brisbane or in the red centre.